A malignant tumor that arises from skin or the lining of body organs. They often invade adjacent tissue and spread to distant organs, including the brain.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Pertaining to the brain, cranial nerves and spinal cord.
The angle between the cerebellum and the pons, a common site for the growth of acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwanomas).
The second largest area of the brain, consisting of two hemispheres or halves and is connected to the brain stem.
Refers to the cerebrum or cerebral hemispheres.
The clear fluid made in the ventricular cavities of the brain that bathes the brain and spinal cord.
The largest area of the brain occupying the uppermost part of the skull. It consists of two halves called hemispheres. Each half of the cerebrum is further divided into four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital.
A rare, benign tumor arising at the base of the skull, especially in the area near the pituitary gland. It is very slow growing and might be present for a long time before causing any symptoms.
This very rare tumor arises from bone and is composed of cartilage. It is a locally invasive malignant tumor.
A rare, benign, slow growing tumor that occurs at the base of the skull in about 1/3 of patients or at the end of the spine.
This is what produces spinal fluid, which flows through the ventricles and meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Circumscribed or encapsulated
Localized; having a border or being wholly confined to a specific area.
Images in three dimensions to the shape of the tumor.
Existing before or at birth.
Circular. In scans, an image from the top of a thin layer of the brain showing both the right and left sides.
A benign tumor arising from small nests of cells located near the pituitary stalk.
Surgery involving the removal of skull bone to gain access to the brain and the bone is put back at the end of the operation.
A fluid-filled mass, usually enclosed by a membrane.
A mass of nerve tissue or a group of nerve cell bodies.
The supportive tissue of the brain. The most common cells are astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Unlike nerves, glial can reproduce itself. Glial is the origin of the largest percentage of brain tumors.
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
A malignant tumor which commonly invades adjacent tissue and spreads throughout the CNS. This is usually a fast growing tumor containing a mixture of cell types.
Any tumor arising from glial tissue of the brain, which provides energy, nutrients and other support for nerve cells in the brain.
A very rare, slow growing, benign tumor that invades the temporal bone.
Cancerous or life-threatening, tending to become progressively worse.
Damage to the brain due to the bulk of a tumor, the blockage of fluid, and/or excess accumulation of fluid within the skull.
Median means the middle value. An equal number of people live longer as die earlier than the median.
Fast-growing, invasive tumors located in the cerebellum that frequently spread to other parts of the central nervous system via the spinal fluid.
Thin layer of tissue covering a surface, lining a body cavity, or dividing a space or organ.
They are three, thin membranes that completely cover the brain and the spinal cord. Spinal fluid flows in the space between two of the membranes.
A brain tumor arising from the fibrous tissues that cover the brain’s surface and spinal cord.
In cancer patients, the spreading of malignant cells.
Delicate surgery involving the use of a special microscope and small instruments.
Complications directly resulting from treatment.
MRI Scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
A scanning device that uses a magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer. Signals emitted by normal and diseased tissue during the scans are assembled into an image.
Caring for a patient by maintaining the best quality of remaining life.
PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
A scanning device which uses low-dose radioactive sugar to measure brain activity. This is a limited-use diagnostic tool.
Photodynamic Radiation Therapy (PRT)
A light sensitive drug is given through a vein and concentrates in the tumor. During a surgical procedure, a special light activates the drug which kills the tumor cells.
Lies below the corpus callosum that produces the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is believed to control the biological rhythms of the body.
Composed of two lobes (anterior and posterior). Attached to and receives messages from the hypothalamus. Several hormones are produced by the pituitary including prolactin, corticotropin, and growth hormone.
Part of the brain stem, containing the origins of the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th cranial nerves.
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET)
A tumor which appears identical under the microscope to the medulloblastoma, but occurs primarily in the cerebrum and most frequently occurs in very young children.
A low dose of radiation commonly given over 10-35 treatments. This treatment has been utilized for many decades as a standard. Radiation therapy may or may not utilized an enhanced targeting device.
Radioresistant Resistant to radiation therapy.
Radiosensitive Responsive to radiation therapy.
Use of a number of precisely aimed, highly focused beams of ionizing radiation to target a specific area.
The return of symptoms or the tumor itself.